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  1. dw1305

    Do you discard the dying parts of anacharis?

    Hi all, The good thing is that they are all growing. I would just keep re-planting the tops and side shoots of the Anacharis (Egeria densa), they will re-root really easily. Foxtail (Ceratophyllum demersum) doesn't ever have any roots, so it is best as a sub-surface floater, just keep...
  2. dw1305

    Copella callolepis (sensu Zarske)

    Hi all, The eggs of mine were clear and bigger than that, I could only see them when I lifted the leaf out of the water. cheers Darrel
  3. dw1305

    Copella callolepis (sensu Zarske)

    Hi all, The nomenclature for these Copella spp. is fairly confused. There is a recent paper that tries to sort it all out, but some of the issues are really deep-seated because the holotype specimen etc. is missing. Paper is Marinho & Menezes(2017) "Taxonomic review of Copella (Characiformes...
  4. dw1305

    So much to chose..

    Hi all, What is your water and tank set-up like? A lot of these species are a bit tricky and require very soft, high quality water. cheers Darrel
  5. dw1305

    Water Parameters for Breeding

    Hi all, I think we've probably all been there. Is rain-water an option? It rains a lot with us in the UK, but I know not everybody is so fortunate. cheers Darrel
  6. dw1305

    Water Parameters for Breeding

    Hi all, I think pH is just conceptually difficult. It is easier if you try and think about changes in pH in terms of changes in water chemistry. In hard water you need a large change in water chemistry to cause any change in pH, in soft water small changes in water chemistry cause large...
  7. dw1305

    Water Parameters for Breeding

    Hi all, Yes, just mix in enough RO water to get down to 100 ppm TDS. There isn't anything magical about it as a figure. It was just the value I got using rainwater in the tanks. I was expecting a lower value, but the water out of the water butt has some carbonate buffering (it is all limestone...
  8. dw1305

    Water Parameters for Breeding

    Hi all, They look in the right ballpark. The pH isn't very useful, because of the degree of carbonate buffering. Once you get above about 4 dKH you will always have a pH value in the region of pH7.8. It is just because of the <"carbonate~pH~CO2 equilibrium">. Where you don't have any carbonate...
  9. dw1305

    Dicrossus maculatus bloating issue

    Hi all, I think it is the <"high protein pellets">, they appear to be very prone to bloating when they are adult. We have a few threads with <"similar experiences">. If I ever keep them again (I would like to they were gorgeous) I'm going to feed them a crustacean based diet. The images are...
  10. dw1305

    Cacatuoides or cf. cacatuoides?

    Hi all, I may be wrong, but I think the blue lips make it very likely that they are A. cacatuoides. What-ever they may be they are lovely. cheers Darrel
  11. dw1305

    Double red?

    Hi all, The depth of red colouring often relates to diet, if you want them to colour up more they need a diet with some <"more carotenoids in it">. I'm not very good at ID or sexing, but I can definitely tell you that they are both males. cheers Darrel
  12. dw1305

    Hole in the head?

    Hi all, Yes, pretty much. We now know that a one of the three fundamental divisions of life are the Archaea, and that they are a lot more common than we realised, and a lot more important in nitrification. Have a look at <"Bacteria revealed">. Before we had DNA they were thought to be bacteria...
  13. dw1305

    Hole in the head?

    Hi all, I'm a lazy aquarist and a floating plant fan as well. I look after an analytical lab, with hundreds of thousands of £ worth of kit, but it is still really difficult to quantify what makes an aquarium successful. I've gone about this a different way now, which just consists of changing...
  14. dw1305

    Hole in the head?

    Hi all, pH might go down a little bit, but you are always going to get pH fluctuation in soft water, pH is inherently unstable as you approach pure H2O. The real problem is with the pH scale, it looks like a simple linear scale, but it isn't really, it is both a ratio and a log^10 scale. Bases...
  15. dw1305

    Water Flow Issue?

    Hi all, You should be fine. You only need a large water turn-over when you add CO2. The recommendation then is x10 of the rating of the filter. If you don't add CO2 then a relatively slow flow is fine. I only keep planted tanks, but I don't add CO2, and I don't regularly add fertilisers, I...
  16. dw1305

    Agassizii tefe or sp.tefe?

    Hi all, Nice fish. With the usual disclaimer that I'm pathetic at ID and you need someone who knows what they are talking about, but it looks Apistogramma sp. "Tefe" to me. cheers Darrel
  17. dw1305

    Hole in the head?

    Hi all, Sorry to hear that. Do you know how old he was? Very few of my males have made it much past two years old, probably because I over-feed them and keep them fairly warm. A few of the females have made it to four. cheers Darrel
  18. dw1305

    Hole in the head?

    Hi all, It looks like a physical abrasion, rather than "Hole in the head". Basically he has head butted something. It could go either way, but he may well recover if you keep water quality up. I don't use melafix etc., but I add some <"Alder cones">, or Oak leaves, when this sort of thing...
  19. dw1305

    Copella callolepis (sensu Zarske)

    Hi all, The leaf had sunk deeper into the tank and all the eggs were gone when I came home. The eggs were all over the leaf (it is quite a small leaf), and they were smaller than those of C. arnoldi, but these are smaller fish. They were transparent and you couldn't see them unless you lifted...
  20. dw1305

    Apisto Stock

    Hi all, I've kept multiple males in a smaller tank, but two would probably be the limit, as you would need at least three females, and they all need their own space at the bottom of the aquarium. It also depends a little bit on how you define heavily planted. I like a lot of plants and...